Mighty Eighth And
The Fifteenth Air Forces In
Action Over Europe In
World War II
Group Of The U.S.
Eighth Air Force & The Second Bomb Group
Of The U.S. Fifteenth Air Force In Action
Over Europe In World War Two.
I dedicate this book to Lieutenant Arthur E. (Buddy) Cox,
Bombardier, who died in the service of his country on
Sunday, 16 July 1944 over Wiener-Neustadt, Austria
while bombing Nazi oil storage facilities.
When the Germans launched their first gas attack in 1915 during World War I, the Allies were desperate to know what chemicals were used and how they could protect their troops in the line of fire.
The Ministry of War in the UK resorted to an academic at the University of Oxford and CPAP Sydney, a man who was willing to risk his own life to create the first gas mask.
Not many scientists today would be willing to inhale dangerous gases, just with the help of a teenager to revive in case of fainting.
But John Scott Haldane was unorthodox, according to Dr. Steve Sturdy, University of Edinburgh.
“Haldane was known by the evidence did himself. He thought that experiments on humans were better because they could communicate their experience.”
Lord Kitchener, the British Secretary of State for War, asked for help in person Haldane when the Germans released clouds of chlorine gas or dichloro In the Line of Fire around the Belgian town of Ypres, on April 22, 1915 .
Urine soaked stockings
In recordings that preserves the Imperial War Museum UK, Bert Newman, the British army medical corps, recounts the effects that a second gas attack had on Canadian troops.
The soldiers were instructed to improvise primitive protection mechanisms, including stockings soaked with his own urine and colocárselas in the face.
“You could see all these poor guys lying on the street choking for breath,” said Dr. Newman.
“And the issue is that there was no gas mask and all these soldiers then had to dip their handkerchiefs and putting them on the mouth or do anything else”.
Haldane already had extensive experience experimenting with gases in research he had done in the mining industry.
“He had visited coal mines to evaluate the cause of death of miners after explosions and in most cases they were the result of gas poisoning,” according to Professor Sturdy.
“He had also managed respiratory equipment that were used in the mines after explosions.”
After the attack of Ypres, Haldane and a colleague were sent to Belgium to investigate which gases were using the Germans.
They found that it was by the way dichloro had faded metal buttons uniforms of soldiers.
The daughter was on duty
In his lab, at home, Haldane set out to find a way that would allow soldiers to counter the gases, without thinking about the effects that the investigation could have on himself.
“He always subjected himself to experiments and the urgency of the war ended exposing himself at doses much higher than what would have occurred in peacetime gas,” he said Sturdy.
“Naomi (her 18 year old daughter) stood guard outside, next to the laboratory door, which had a window. She was instructed to get in and out immediately if he fainted as a result of the gases”.
The initial result of the tests was not far from urine-soaked handkerchiefs worn by soldiers.
“They were called respiratory veils and consisted mainly of pads made of cotton and gauze covers were soaked in a solution of sodium tiusolfato, which neutralized the effects of dichloro” said Dr. Sturdy.
“They could be placed over the entire face, nose or mouth, but he acknowledged that this solution would not go very far.
William Collins, one of the orderlies, has another recording that he was one of the first to use the respiratory veil.
“Calls gas masks had two and a half inches and consisted pads wool gauze covered and held with an elastic band around,” Collins said.
“After two minutes one could not breathe with these masks and ended moving them to the front and absorbing gases. It was not a practical solution,” he added.
Haldane then went on to assist in the development of respiratory called boxes, which were more effective and were subsequently used for the duration of the war.
However, the academic, born in Edinburgh, could have found reasons not to help British forces.
His brother Richard, who was Minister of War, and later Finance was the victim of the wave of condemnation of the Germans that gripped the country at the beginning of the First World War.
“Many newspapers orchestrated a campaign against him because he studied in Germany, spoke German very well, and had close ties with many academics in this country.” He said Sturdy.
“Richard was harassed and lost his job for this, and I think John Haldane also suffered from this.”
But Haldane continued to collaborate with the government during the war and continued to do experiments involving tests itself.
Also use your child more than 20 years in their experiments. It seems that this did not hurt the latter, nor dissuaded the world of science, and then became professor of genetics.
Madrid was during the Second World War , an accomplice stage of the conflict. An unseen atmosphere of espionage and clandestine accompanied the ambiguous neutrality of Spain, in theory regardless of the interests of Germans and allies. For such a case, there is a mental image of this confident Madrid, where an attractive woman sitting at the bar of a local exclusive, suggestive monitors the movements of a Nazi officer, with appearance bet and dark intentions.
The stereotype, literary and perhaps somewhat trite, was nevertheless a real stamp on the Horcher restaurant in Madrid , located at number 6 Calle Alfonso XII, a few steps from the Calle de Alcala. In the local German, estimated at the service of the Nazi party, they came to find the American spy Aline Griffith and the then head of the -Schutzstaffel- SS, Heinrich Himmler, in one of his visits to the capital. The beautiful woman, elegant and soft, feminine lines, worked at the time for the Office of Strategic Services in your country -oss by the acronym in English, forerunner of the CIA. Years later, in 1947, married the Spanish Luis de Figueroa.
Horcher, founded in 1904 in Berlin and moved to Madrid in 1943 after passing through Vienna, Riga, Tallinn, Oslo, London and Lisbon, is then set as a highlight of aristocrats, diplomats and, in parallel, Nazi personalities with the subsequent monitoring of allied agents. In fact, the prestigious restaurant having a Vendor management software, which still retains its high regard and exclusivity, was the favorite of Hermann Göring , relevant image of the Nazi party and commander of the Luftwaffe air force.
“Legends” and realities
The work of Griffith and other spies focused on the local, created by Gustav Horcher and inherited by subsequent generations of the family .According to some writings, the relationship between Otto Horcher son of Gustav – and certain figures of the Nazi party was evident. War exploded, was established in Madrid with the financial support of the Sicherheitsdienst, the intelligence agency of the SS. The rumor, however, was denied by Elisabeth Horcher , granddaughter of the founder, less than a year ago in ABC -information Rosa Belmonte-, “My grandparents were unsympathetic to anything the regime of this man. He was a restaurant at the time and came people who were at that time in Madrid, German and English. ”
His version, also contrasts with the US reports on Madrid , collected by José María Irujo in his book “The Black List”, which indicates that Horcher allegedly was a “cover the Nazi government to f inanciar activities espionage and as a refuge or escape route for Nazi fugitives from justice. ” Aline Griffith’s own feeds this thesis in “The Spy Who wore red”, which recounts his memories as a spy in the capital, between 1943 and 1987.
We present a list of the best Soviet films about the horrors of war.
1. The Cranes Are Flying
It is a Soviet film Mikhail Kalatozov which was awarded in 1958 with the Golden Palm award at the Cannes Film Festival.
The film is the tragedy of two lovers who were separated by the Second World War.
Boris is recruited to go to the front where he died hit by a bullet while Veronica, his girlfriend, to stay home with his brother betrays him.
Here’s an episode subtitled in Spanish, while the full version of the film in English is also available on movie2k.
2. The sunrises are here gentlest
It is a military drama Stanislav Rostotsky which was recorded in 1972. In the film there are two parts: a real (made in black and white) and the other (recorded in color) is the one that describes the life of the protagonists before the war
This film tells the story of the Soviet commander, FEDOT Vaskov, fighting German soldiers supported by five beautiful and young bold.
To demonstrate that the German soldiers “not repaired to kill young and pretty women of the USSR”, Rostotski shot a scene where the protagonists appear completely naked.
The second part of the film is available here.
3. Slaughter Come!
The war drama Elem Klimov, recorded in 1985, is based on the child Flyora Gaishun, who at 13 years old, joined the partisans to fight the Nazi soldiers.
The commotion caused the premiere of the movie outside the USSR, following the extreme degree of violence shown, reached such a point that ambulances stood guard near the cinemas.
4. The Battle of Moscow It is a work produced and directed by Yuri Ozerov which premiered in 1985 under the Moscow Film Festival.
The film, which lasts more than six hours, is divided into 2 parts: “Aggression” which chronicles the development of Operation Barbarossa (the plan of invasion of the USSR, devised by Hitler); and the “Typhoon” which focuses on the preparation and management of the famous battle near Moscow.
After the Second World War had killed 40 million people and 35 million had been wounded , most of them in theUSSR , Poland , Germany and Yugoslavia , but the population did not decline because the number of births exceeded that of deaths . At the end there were 15 million displaced persons seeking to return to their place of origin.
In Europe countries lost much of its industrial capacity and infrastructure . The agricultural production was alsoaffected with declines in almost all countries and a large number of houses had been destroyed .
In addition to the lack of food, raw materials and energy Europeans lacked means of payment with which toimport, and monetary and debt problems by war exacerbated the problem.
However they exist a number of factors that promoted a European reconstruction after the war: not the entire production was destroyed in the war ; the interest of the United States (US) in the reconstruction of Europe ;He had strengthened the idea of the necessary cooperation between European states for recovery; and it emerged a new sense of supranationality .
During the 40s were being created different European movements betting on integration and European cooperation: the Union of European Federalists , 1946; European Movement , 1947; “Ligue Européenne Cooperation Economique” , 1948; the Council of Europe , 1949.
However the signing of defensive military alliances in Europe, which led to the creation of NATO, endangered integration processes in Europe to marginalize those countries who wanted to remain neutral or non – aligned .
Although the United States have sent 25,000 million dollars in economic aid from 1945 to 1948 , this assistance was sold out early and did not help the economic recovery of Europe . In 1947 , the US secretary of state, George C. Marshall , raised the need to send aid to Europe for economic recovery tied to Europe would make oneinventory of their resources and develop a common plan of economic recovery that would lead to the formation of a large European market. To achieve the objectives had three ways : common economic recovery program ,customs union and trade liberalization .
At the end of the three ways the third way that led to the creation of the was chosen European Organisation for Economic Cooperation (OEEC), this organization got an agreement on the allocation of funds provided by theUS but did not get that would remember one joint development plan and stayed in some general principles :monetary stability , stimulate exports , reducing imports , modernize infrastructure and production and reduce European imbalances .
In the late 40 different developed projects customs unions : Francital (between France and Italy ), the Benelux (Belgium , Netherlands and Luxembourg ), Finebel (Among the countries Francital and Benelux ), Uniscan ( UK ,Denmark , Norway and Sweden ) and the Nordic Council (between the Scandinavian countries ).
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With the recently concluded war, Charles Chaplin approached him in this silent short film that seamlessly blends comedy and war movies. Our protagonist – played by himself Charlot – is immersed in multiple situations filled absurd humor. You can find the movie here putlocker.
Wings of William A. Wellman (USA, 1927)
First winning film Academy Award for Best Picture tells the story of two young Americans in love with the same girl who decide to join together to fight the war.Noted for its exemplary aerial sequences. First film awarded the Academy Award for Best Picture by the Academy of Hollywood.
Uneventfully in front of Lewis Milestone (US, 1930)
Based on the novel by Erich Maria Remarque, the film assumes the overall pessimism of the interwar about the First World War . His success with critics and audiences was endorsed by the Academy Film United States winning twoOscars , including the best film of the year.
The great illusion of Jean Renoir (France, 1937)
Considered by many as the first masterpiece of French filmmaker Jean Renoir , explores the camaraderie and friendship that was forged in the day to day among some French prisoners held in a German concentration camp. Finalist Academy Award for Best Picture .
The African Queen John Huston (USA, 1951)
One of the masterpieces of John Huston ( The Asphalt Jungle, Key Largo ). After the outbreak of the First World War, a moody captain and a mission – embodied to perfection by Humphrey Bogart and Katharine Hepburn – they try to escape from the Germans in a barge. Humphrey Bogart won his only Oscar as best actor for this film.
Paths of Glory Stanley Kubrick (USA , 1957)
Probably the iconic film World War. Exceptional anti – war and anti – military allegation directed by acclaimed Stanley Kubrick . The film tells us the (unfair) martialed soldiers who are subjected after the failure of a battle. The sequences in the trenches, court time, the interpretation of Kirk Douglas … everything is perfect in this masterpiece of cinema.
The Great War Mario Monicelli (Italy, 1959)
War Italian comedy where two Italian soldiers trying to survive the conflict with its picaresque. However, all will be in the most unexpected and tragic way. One of the great films of the legendary Italian neorealism. Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival and finalist for the Oscar for Best Foreign Language film.
Oh, how pretty! War Richard Attenborough (UK, 1969)
The late Richard Attemborough ( Gandhi ) debuted as a director with this curious tape that combines two popular genres such as the military and musical.Also it has a great cast headed by great figures of the British scene as Dick Bogarde, John Gieguld, Laurence Olivier, Maggie Smith and Vanessa Redgrave, among others.
Johnny Got His Gun by Dalton Trumbo (USA, 1971)
Dalton Trumbo took more than 3 decades (and survive hunting American Bruges) to bring to the big screen the novel he published in 1939. In the same recounts the terrible life of a mutilated in a hospital for war fighters. Perfectly reflects the new American cinema emerged in the 70s characterized greater social criticism and realism. Grand Jury Prize at Cannes .
The Red Baron Roger Corman (US, 1971)
It shows the rivalry in the air fighting during World War I between two prestigious enemy pilots: the German Baron Von Richthofen (known as the Red Baron) and Brown English. It has some of the most famous air battles of the history of cinema.
Gallipoli Peter Weir (Australia, 1981)
Australian film that recalls one of the most famous battles of World War that pitted Turks and Germans with Australians and New Zealanders. Directed byPeter Weir ( Witness, Club Dead Poets or The Truman Show ) and starring a young Mel Gibson , the film launched the career of both and opened the doors of Hollywood to them.
And the Ship Sails Federico Fellini (Italy, 1983)
Probably the last great Federico Fellini film tells how a luxury boat is immersed in the beginning of the First World War when he has to help some Serbs migrants trying to flee the war. Italian Film Academy recognized with 4 David di Donatello awards, including best film.
Capitaine Conan by Bertrand Tavernier (France, 1996)
Spectacular anti – war argument inspired by the novel by Roger Vercel , the film focuses on a part of the French army that ended the war, continues to act in the Danube area. 9 nominations for the Cesar awards, including best film.
A Very Long Engagement by Jean-Pierre Jeunet (France, 2004 )
The popular Jean-Pierre Jeunet ( Amelie ) met with his starring Audrey Tatou in this story that combines war movies, intrigue, romantic melodrama and fantasy.He noted for its sweeping images, setting or soundtrack. Curiously it has episodic collaboration of a Jodie Foster demonstrating his mastery of the French language. 5 Awards Caesar or 2 nominations to the Oscar the guarantee
War Horse Steven Spielberg (USA, 2011)
Last big production centered in World War by the renowned Steven Spielberg .The film, based on the eponymous play winning the Tony , tells the relationship between the young Albert and his horse in various war zones and their struggle to survive. Despite not being among the best of Steven Spielberg, the film managed to choose 6 Oscar nominations and 5 to the British Bafta.
The diet of the Russian Air Force is another fad diet that is both strict and rather low in calories. It is assumed that was originally developed in the former Soviet Union to keep soldiers fit. The diet has many similarities to the diet of 3 days, but the difference is that it lasts for seven days and has a slightly different menu.
This diet is actually associated with the Air Force in order to add value, although there is an absence of a definitive scientific support . Indeed, but with such limited food intake, it is unlikely to have much energy for combat. While some describe a three – day military diet, others recognize a diet of Russian Air Force seven days.
The Air Force Diet: how does it work? Meal plan and benefits
How the diet of the Air Force work?
The diet of the Russian Air Force provides seven days of meals that are very low in calories . Breakfast is usually coffee and a very small amount of starchy carbohydrates. Lunch is a small amount of protein and a piece of fruit. Dinner is protein and a salad.
The diet of the Air Force requires the user to drink at least four glasses of water or diet soda every day. You can use herbs, salt, pepper, vinegar, Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, mustard and ketchup on any of the meals to add flavor.
The first day of the diet allows only coffee for breakfast. Lunch on the first day will be two eggs and a tomato. Dinner will be composed of seven ounces of red meat and a small salad. In all other days breakfast can include coffee and a very small portion of a starchy carbohydrate. The individual will eat a protein and a piece of fruit for lunch and a protein and a salad for dinner.
Another example of a diet breakfast of the Russian Air Force is coffee and a slice of toast or two crackers . Lunch would be like two eggs and a can of tuna or a small chicken breast. The evening meal would be the same as lunch but with a small salad. For a full meal plan, see the last part of the article.
It is unknown whether the diet of the Russian Air Force is really the diet that required the Russians or non – military . It is unlikely , however, because the diet is so extreme. Old photos of the soldiers would attest to the effectiveness of the diet really the diet if they used. The diet can be followed by a week. Food requirements must be followed exactly as specified times. The diet reduces calorie intake diner. With a reduced number of calories the individual lose weight in the first week and you lose even more if continued for a second week.
Air Force Diet: advantages and benefits
The following reasons are presented to follow the diet of the Air Force:
It is very easy to follow
It is affordable and all the food is easy to get and prepare
At the end of the third day, you can lose up to 4-5kg, and diet claims weight loss of 7 kg in 7 days.
Air Force Diet: disadvantages and side effects
Some reasons for not following the diet of the Air Force:
The diet is very low in calories and nutrients, and probably will lead to a slower metabolism. If you follow this diet, you will lose weight, but you will also experience nausea, fatigue and irritability throughout the week. In addition, you will feel hungry most of the day.
It is very restrictive and difficult to follow, and therefore is not suitable for active people.
It does not produce long-term results. When the diet ends, the weight back because it is not sustainable.
If you work with heavy loads or must use your brain for most of the day, the diet of the Russian Air Force is not for you . This diet is low in calories; therefore, you should not do training and exercise. Meals in the diet will not give you enough fuel to support your muscles. Your body will convert proteins into carbohydrates to meet basic energy needs. The diet of the Russian Air Force should not extend beyond the period of seven days as this would be a famine of essential nutrients. Its side effects include dizziness and lack of concentration.
Comments about the diet of the Air Force: does it work?
Needless to say, this is another very low-calorie diet and deprived of nutrients. This diet is based mainly on hunger. What worked for Soviet soldiers is not very good for civilians!
You will lose weight because their calorie intake will drop to low levels. Aside from feeling hungry, you will also be tired during the day and will lack fiber, vitamin E, potassium, and other vitamins and minerals. After losing kilos for 7 days and you return to your normal eating habits, the kilos you lost again and can increase further.
This diet, like many of its kind, can be adapted to provide an adequate number of calories. You can expect to be under power and must refrain from exercising the duration of the diet because it does not include many carbohydrates, which depend muscles. Your body will have to convert some of the proteins that ingest carbohydrates in order to meet basic energy needs. While following the diet of the Russian Air Force can lead to Pastillas naturales para perder Peso, you can increase the weight back quickly because the diet does not teach you to change your eating habits.
This time we will not talk about beauty tips, talk about its impact on World War II.
The lipstick was an impact during World War II by millions of British women. While the Germans invaded the UK, British women did their best to look beautiful and not show fear and worry the enemy to see their country in war.
They elaborated lipstick named saiba mais sobre lift x aqui with beets, to put shadows on the eyes boots and wax used to make believe they had nylons; They applied on the back of the legs of meat sauce. They were always prepared for any situation in which case if you take photographs as news did not stop leaving and they knew that the information was directly towards the Germans. In other words, they were responsible for giving the good image of the country to foreign countries.
In the late ’30s, beauty was considered as superficial issue and women were allowed two bars of lipstick a year. The government realized the dissatisfaction of women and it was a bad decision and because of that, had to increase the production of lipstick.
For makeup remover, they used lard and used a mixture of sugar and water to make a type of enamel or hair gel.
They were encouraged women to work and raise labor at that time as it was were difficult times and had to raise the country. Those yes, not neglected beauty. In addition, at that time they became famous sewing machines made women realized that it was cheaper to make your own clothes with the fabric of their previous pledges; because to buy new clothes, there were certain rules that many women could not afford or did not have enough money.
In 1942, the British government gift to women that they buy coupons for makeup, thus prevented them down the morale of the workers. In 1949 in the UK, finished rationing makeup and clothes. Makeup and beauty allowed women to feel free in times of crisis.
Information was disseminated Monday morning December 15, 2014. The Logistics Directorate of the Joint Command of the Armed Forces , through the Department of Arms Control, authorized the temporary marketing of fireworks by seo specialist gold coast.
But this measure applies to importers , not importers and manufacturers of fireworks that were previously recorded as temporary traders of this material.
Through a statement to this newspaper, the military say the resolution allows this activity to natural persons and legal pyrotechnic devices sold in the country during the festivities of christmas and new year .
The requirements for this release are as follows: 1. Application addressed to the Director of Logistics of the Armed Forces Joint Command and presented at the Center for Arms Control. 2. Copy current authorization importer, importer or manufacturer not pirotécnia issued by the Joint Command. 3. Color copy of the certificate of citizenship or identity and certificate voting in force. 4. Original certificate updated the importer or artisanal fireworks factory, appointing him as temporary trader of these products, should be copied, it must be notarized. 5. Proof of payment for expenses administrative by the value of USD 5. the military also said they are marketing these products without authorization will be subject to sanctions . Under the new comprehensive Code of Criminal Procedure (art. 396), the person who without authorization of the competent body to develop or markets pyrotechnical material shall be punished with imprisonment from 15 to 30 days.